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A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z

C

C4 plants
Cadherins
Caenorhabditis elegans
[ general discussion ] [genome] [germline vs somatic cells] [measuring mutation rate in] [evolutionary advantage of outcrossing in]
Calciferol
Calcineurin (calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase)
Calcitonin
Calcitriol
Calcium
[in nutrition] [homeostatic regulation of] [as "intracellular messenger"]
Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)
Calorie
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius. When capitalized, a unit of heat 1000 times larger than the above.
Calorie Restriction (CR)
Calvin cycle
Cambium
[in stems] [in roots]
Cambrian period
CaMKII
Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II
CAM plants
cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein
Cancer
Any disease characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of one kind of cell. [General discussion] [Chemotherapy] [Immunotherapy] [Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia] [Cancer Cells in Culture] [Burkitt's Lymphoma] [lung cancer] [colon cancer] [Oncogenes] [tumor suppressor genes] [and apoptosis] [estimating risk] [caused by power lines?] [and telomeres] ["The Causes and Prevention of Cancer" by Bruce Ames]
Capillaries
Capping of pre-mRNA
Capsaicin
Carbamates
Carbohydrates
Carbon cycle
Carbon dioxide
[in cellular respiration] [in photosynthesis] [control of breathing] [control of heartbeat] [transport by blood]
Carbonic anhydrase
Carbonyl group
Carboxylic acids
Carboxyl terminal
Carboxypeptidase
Carcinogen
A substance that causes cancer.
Carcinoma
A cancer of epithelial cells.
Cardiac (heart) muscle
Carotenoid
Carpel
Carrying capacity (K) of the environment
Cartilage
Cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes)
Casparian strip
Caspase
Catabolism
Catabolite activator protein (CAP)
Catalase
Catalyst
Substance that accelerates the rate of chemical reaction without being used up in the process. Enzymes are catalysts.
Cataracts
Catecholamines
Catenins
[in adherens junctions] [as transcription factors]
Cathelicidins
CCK (Cholecystokinin)
CCR3 (CC chemokine Receptor 3)
CCR5 (CC chemokine Receptor 5)
CD ("cluster of differentiation") molecules
[CD1] [CD3] [CD4] [CD8] [CD19] [CD20] [CD22] [CD25] [CD28] [CD33] [CD34] [CD47] [CD52] [CD80 (= B7-1)] [CD86 (= B7-2)] [CD95]
cDNA
DNA produced in vitro by the reverse transcription of a messenger RNA
Cell-mediated immunity
Cells
[Animal cells] [Plant cells] [Cell Cycle] [Cell Junctions] [Cell membranes] [Cell signaling]
Cellular respiration
[Discussion] [energy relationships in]
Cellulose
Cenozoic era
Centimorgan (cM)
Central dogma
Central nervous system (CNS), human
Centriole
Centromere
Centrosome
[general discussion] [in mitosis]
Cephalopoda
Cephalosporins
Cercariae
Cerebellum
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Cestoda
[pig and fish tapeworm life cycles]
Chaparral
Chaperones and chaperonins
[in protein folding] [in protein kinesis]
Character Displacement
Chargaff's rule
Chase, Martha
Checkpoints
in the cell cycle
Chelicerata
Chemiosmosis
[in chloroplasts] [in mitochondria] [laboratory demonstration]
Chemoautotrophic
Autotrophic, using energy secured by oxidizing some inorganic substance. Characteristic of certain bacteria and archaeons.
Chemokine
A cytokine that attracts white blood cells (WBCs). These secreted proteins regulate the migration of WBCs from the blood into the tissues and promote inflammation. Some are also essential for proper embryonic development. Over 40 different chemokines have been identified. [some examples]
Chemotaxis
Chemotherapy
Treating a patient with chemicals to combat an infectious disease or cancer. [drugs used in cancer chemotherapy]
Chernobyl
[radiation] [effect of fallout]
Chiasma
Chimera
Chimpanzee
[genome] [evolutionary relationships] [learned behavior] [immunodeficiency virus (SIV)]
Chitin
[inhibitors as insecticides]
Chlamydia
Chlamydomonas
Chloracne
Chlorarachniophytes
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, as insecticides
Chlorination of water supplies
Chlorofluorohydrocarbons (CFCs) and ozone layer
Chlorophyll
Chloroplasts
[structure] [chemiosmosis in] [genome]
Choanoflagellates
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Cholera
[the cause] [1991 epidemic]
Cholesterol
[uptake by cells]
Cholinesterase
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)
Chondroitin sulfate
Chordata
Invertebrate chordates
Chordin
Chorion
Chorionic gonadotropin
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Choroid coat
Chromatid
Chromatin
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
Chromatography
[affinity chromatography] [exclusion chromatography] [paper]
Chromatophores
Chromosomes
[discussion] [chromosome maps] [chromosome painting] [harlequin] [sex chromosomes]
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
[discussion] [mutation]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chrysophyta (golden algae)
Chymotrypsin
Cigarettes and health
Cilia
Ciliates
Ciona intestinalis
Cipro®
Circadian
Occurring approximately once a day. [Discussion of circadian rhythms in Drosophila and mammals]
Circulatory system
[human: structure and function] [fish, squid, frog, lizard] ["open"]
Cistron
Citric acid cycle
Citrulline
Cladistics
Cleavage
[in frog]
Cline
Clinical studies
clinical trials of drugs
Cloaca
Posterior part of the alimentary canal into which the urinary and reproductive tracts empty in birds, reptiles, amphibians, monotremes, and many fishes. [View]
Clock (clk) gene
Clonal selection in the immune system
Clone
The descendants produced asexually from a single cell or organism. Characterized by a identical genetic constitution. [cloning DNA] [cloning animals]
Clonus
Clostridia
Clotting (coagulation) of blood
Cnidaria
Cocaine
Cochlea
Cockayne's syndrome
and aging
Codominance
The independent expression of each of two alleles in a heterozygote.
Codon
[DNA codons] [RNA codons] [mRNA translation] [exceptions to the code]
Coelacanth
Coelom
Main body cavity of many animals. It is lined with an epithelium derived from mesoderm.
Coenzyme
Cohesin
Cohesion
Force of attraction between like molecules.
Cold receptors
Coleoptile
Collagen
Collective dose
Collenchyma
Color blindness
Colostrum
Commensalism
Community
The population of plants, animals, and microbes found in a particular area and often interacting with one another.
Companion cell
Competition
[intraspecific] [interspecific]
Competitive inhibition
of enzymes
Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs)
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
A DNA molecule synthesized (by reverse transcriptase) from an RNA template. When the template is messenger RNA (mRNA), the cDNA represents an intronless gene.
Complementation, genetic
Complement system
Compound
Compound eye, of arthropods
Computed tomography (CT)
Concepts
Condensin
Conditioned Response
Conditioning, instrumental or operant
Cones
of human retina
Confidence limits
Conidia
Conifers
Conjugation
[bacterial conjugation] [in Paramecium]
Connective tissue
Connexins
Consumer
(primary, secondary, etc.)
Contact sensitivity
[a case study] [contact dermatitis]
Contig
A DNA sequence assembled by matching overlaps of individual DNA fragment sequences. [View]
Continental drift
Contraception
Contraceptive, oral
Convergent evolution
COPI and COPII (Coat proteins I and II)
Corepressor
Cornea
Coronary system
Corpora allata
Corpus luteum
Cortex
The outer part of an organ.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Cortisol
Corynebacteria
Cottony cushion scale insect
Cotyledon
Countercurrent exchangers
Covalent bond
Cowpox
COX
Initials used for two entirely different molecules: cytochrome c oxidase and cyclooxygenase
CpG islands
Cranial nerves
Craniata
Creatine phosphate
Creighton, Harriet
Cre/loxP
Crenarchaeota
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
Crick, F.
CRISPR loci (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)
Cristae in mitochondria
Crossing over
[in meiosis] [molecular mechanism]
Crustacea
Cryptochrome
[and circadian rhythms] [and germination] [and etiolation] [and photoperiodism in plants]
Cryptomonads
csd ("complementary sex determiner") gene
C terminal
Cushing's syndrome
C value
[C-value paradox]
CXCR4
Cyanobacteria
Cycle (cyc) gene
Cyclic ADP ribose
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
Cyclic GMP (cGMP)
Cyclic photophosphorylation
Cyclin
Cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2)
[COX-2 inhibitors] [and pain]
Cyclosporine
Cysteine
Cysticercosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
[mutations]
Cytidine deaminase
Cytochrome
[in mitochondria] [in chloroplasts] [cytochrome c sequences in different species]
Cytokine
Protein secreted by a cell that signals other cells in a paracrine fashion or even itself (autocrine). The various lymphokines, chemokines, interferons, colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors are examples. [cytokine receptors]
Cytokinesis
Cytokinins
Plant hormones.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Cytoplasm
General term for all the contents of the cell outside the nucleus and within the plasma membrane.
Cytosine
Cytoskeleton
Cytosol
The fluid in which the organelles of the cytoplasm are suspended. Also called the ground substance of the cell.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)
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