These references on this list are compiled as a resource for the PMTH Listserv, which is a conversation among therapists talking about postmodern therapies.  To learn more about PMTH click here.

Adorno, T. W. and Horkheimer, Max 1972. Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Seabury.

Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. A. (1988). Human systems as linguistic systems: Preliminary and evolving ideasabout the implications for clinical theory.  Family Process, 27(4), 317-393.

summary of paper

Anderson, H. & Goolishian, H. A. (1990).  Beyond cybernetics: Comments on Atkinson and Heath's 'Further thoughts on second-order family therapy'. Family Process, 29(2), 157-163.

Anderson, H. (1997).  Conversation, Language an Possibilities: A Postmodern  Approach to Therapy.  New York: Basic Books.

The self is an ever-changing expression of our narratives, a being-and-becoming through language and storytelling as we continually attempt to make sense of our world and of ourselves.  p.216 

Also see translations of this book:

Anderson, H. (1999) Das Therapeutische Gesprach: Der Gleichberechtigie Dialog als Perspektive der Veranderung (Available from Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, Germany)

Anderson, H. (1999) Samtal Sprak och  Mojligheter: Psykoterapi ochKonsultation ur Postmodern Synvinkel (Available from Mareld, Stockholm, Sweden)

Anderson, H. (2000) Conversacion, Lenguaje y Possibilities: Un Enfoque Posmoderno de la Terapia, Amorrortu/Editores, Buenos Aires, Argentina) 

Bakhtin, M. M. 1981. Discourse in the novel, in The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M. M. Bakhtin, ed. M. Holquist, 259-422. Austin: University of Texas.

Barthes, Roland. (1988).  The Death of the Author.  In D. Lodge (Ed.) Modern Criticism and Theory.  New York: Longman, 167-172.

Baudrillard, Jean.(1983).  Simulations, New York: Semiotext(e)

Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

A classic text that was very influential in the sociology of knowledge.  It argues that much of our worlds are not just there naturally, but are constructed by our social practices.  The book opens up questions about the constructed origin of our world, but does not do much to analyze how specific elements in the world are constructed.
Bernstein, R. J. (1983).  Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Argues that  dialogue and communality is a unifying anthem consolidating diverse positions within the hermeneutic tradition.  He draws on Rorty to argue that there is a moral imperative for philosophers to defend 'the openness of human conversation against all those temptationsand real threats that seek closure' (pp.204-205).  Such a vision acknowledges the inevitability of conflicting perspectives, and it also highlights the dangers of monopoly positions on truth, which limit debate and threaten mutuality. (p.591).

Best, S. & Kellner, D. (1991).  Postmodern Theory.  New York: The Guilford Press.

Readable summary of many postmodern authors including Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari, Baudrillard, Lyotard.  there is also a discussion of critical theory as it relates to psotmodernism as well as Marxism, feminism  and politics as it relates to postmodernism. 

Billig, M. (1987).  Arguing and Thinking.  Cambridge University Press.

Bollas, C. (1992).  Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self Experience,  New York: Hill & Wang.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble, feminist theory, and psychoanalytic discourse.  In L. J. Nicholson (Ed.) Feminism/Postmodernism.  New York: Routledge, 324-340.

Caplan, P. (1995).  They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal.  Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

An expose of the politics behind the DSM IV. 
1. How Do They Decide Who is Normal? 
2. Whose Normality Is It, Anyway? 
3. Do Mental Health Professional Think Anyone is Normal? 
4. How the American Psychiatric Association 
    Decides Who is Not Normal - Part I 
5. How the American Psychiatric Association 
    Decides Who is Not Normal - Part II 
6. Delusional Dominating Perosnality Disorder: 
    "If This Sounds Discouraging, 
    I'm Afraid It Is Meant To 
7. How Gatekeeping Replaces Scientific Precision 
8. What Motivates the DSM Authors? 
9. Media: The Good and the Bad 
10.  Where's the Harm, and What Will Help? 


Caplan, P. (1991). How do they decide who is normal? The bizarre, but true tale
         of the DSM-IV process. Canadian Psychology 32:162-170.

Caplan was a committee member that helped prepare the DSM IV, and this paper chronicles the committee process for including some disorders and not others.

Chihara, C. S., & Fodor, J. A. (1965). Operationalism and ordinary language: A critique of Wittgenstein. In G. Pitcher (Ed.), Wittgenstein: The philosophical investigations: A collection of critical essays (pp. 384-420). Garden City: Doubleday & Company.

Presents an argument that Wittgenstein is a logical behaviorist.


Collingwood, R. G. (1946).  The idea of history. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1946.

Collingwood saw history as the record of past thoughts reenacted within the historian's mind.  Collingwood, like Dilthey, was aware of the way in which the historian fills in gaps.  Knowledge of earlier historical periods was to be achieved by projecting oneself into the earlier context.

Cronen, V. E., Johnson, K. M. and Lannamann, J. W. (1982). "Paradoxes, double-binds, and reflexive loops', Family Process, 21: 91-112.

Introduces the idea of reflexive discourse. 

Davidson, Donald. Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation.  (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984).

He says, "Once upon a time...rivers and bottles did not, as they do now, literally have mouths." (p. 252), but the meanings of the words have changed in such a way as to make these sentences literally true. 


"It is easy to misconcieve the role of society in language.  Language is, to be sure, a social art.  But it is an error to suppose we have seen deeply into the heart of linguistic communication when we have noticed how society bends linguistic habits to a public norm.  What is conventional about language, if anything is, is that people tend to speak much as their neighbors do.  (p.278)

Davidson, Donald.  Paradoxes of Irrationality.  In Richard Wollheim & James Hopkins.  Philosophical Essays on Freud.  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press/).

Epston, D. and White, M. (1992). Experience, contradiction, narrative and imagination.Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.

Klaus G. Deissler & Sheila McNamee, eds. (2000):   "Phil und Sophie auf der Couch -    Die soziale Poesie therapeutischer Gespräche".
    Carl-Auer-Systeme, Heidelberg

Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F.  Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.  Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.

Takes the position that the Oedipal Complex is a social pathology that is fostered by traditional psychoanalysis through a process they call "oedipalization."  The idea is that by going through a psychoanalysis the unconscious is made to fear castration and the individual becomes so guarded that s/he is unable to experience desire/ 
[C]astration designates the operation by which psychoanalysis castrates the unconscious, injects cstration into the unconscious. 
The psychoanalyst became the carrier of oedipus, the great agent of antiproduction in desire 

And the under the rein of psychoanalysis 

The unconscious ceases to be what it is -- a factory, a workshop -- to become a theater, a scene and its staging. 

The treatment proposed by Deleuze and Gutarri is called schizoanalysis.  Schizoanalysis is concerned with removing the repressions to desire so that people can feel their desire. 

Derrida, J. of Grammatology.  (1976).  Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Derrida's first major work in English.  It is in this text that he introduces the term "deconstruction."

Derrida, J. (1977).  Signature Event Context.  In J. Derrida's Limited Inc.  Evanston, Ill.: Norther Western University Press.

Derrida, J. (1985). The Ear of the Other. Translated by Peggy Kamuf.  New York: Shocken Books.

Efran, J. S., Lukens, M.D., Lukens, R. J. (1990). Language, structure, and change : frameworks of meaning in psychotherapy.  New York: Norton.

Epston, D. & White, M., (1992). Experience, contradiction, narrative and imagination.  Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.

Efran, J. S., Lukens, M. D., & Lukens, R. J. (1990). Language, Structure, and Chage: Frameworks of Meaning in psychotherapy.  New York: W. W. Norton.

Acknowledgements  ix
Preface  xi
1 Professional Doubts  1
2 A Better Alternative: Structure Determinism  20
3 Making Distinctions  35
4 The Drift of Living  46
5 The Myth of Instructive Interaction  63
6 Stories, Explanations, and Problems 80
7 The Confusing World of Cause, Purpose and Blame  97
8 Contractual Understandings  115
9 Coupling, Orthogonality and Problem-Solving  137
10 Emotions, Preferences and Attachments  154
11 Therapy as Inquiry  179
References  199
Name Index  211
Subject Index  217

Fiedler, Leslie, (1965). "The New Mutants," Partisan Review, 32(4)  Reprinted in his Collected Essays , vol. 2 (New York, 1971) 379-400.

Freud, S. (1914).  On narcissism. Standard Edition 14:73-102.  New York: Norton, 1957.

Fiumara, G. C. (1995). The Metaphoric Process. New York: Routledge.

Foucault, Michel (1990). The History of Sexuality (An Introduction). Vintage Books.

Amazon link

Foucault, Michel (1990). The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality. Vintage Books.

Amazon link

Foucault, Michel. (1975). The Birth of the Clinic: an Archeology of Medical Perception. (A. M. Sheridan Smith, trans.)New York: Vintage Books.

paraphrase and summary of this text

Foucault, M.  (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interview and Other Writings 1972-1977, Hassocks, Sussex: Harvester.

Parker (1992, p. 19) says that Foucault insists in this work that the term ideology presupposes truth, and that we should instead, speak  'regimes of truth' in which one regime is no more correct than any other. 

Frosh, S. (1991). Identity crisis: Modernity, psychoanalysis of the self.  London

Fritch, John E.; Leeper, Karla K.  (1993).  Poetic logic: the metaphoric form as a foundation for a theory of tropological argument. Argumentation and Advocacy v29, n4 :186-195.

Gale, J., & Kogan, S. (Winter 1996-1997). The local   accomplishment of power: Dialogic selves in participation. AFTA Newsletter, 67, 1, 4-5.

complete text of article

Garfinkel, H. (1967).  Studies in ethnomethodology.  Cambridge: Polity.

  1. Heritage on Garfinkel
  2. Garfinkel 
  3. Garfinkel according to Shotter
  4. Article 1 on Garfinkel and Wittgestein
  5. Article 2 on Garfinkel and Wittgenstein
  6. Article 3 on Garfinkel and Wittgenstein
  7. Article 4 on Garfinkel and Wittgenstein
  8. Why is finitism important?

Gergen, K. J. (1985). The Social Constructionist Movement in Modern Psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 226-275.

Gergen, K. J. (1989). Social psychology and the wrong revolution. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 463-484.

sumary of paper

Gergen, K. J. (1992).  Beyond Narrative in the Negotiation of Therapeutic
         Meaning.  In Sheila McNamee and Kenneth J. Gergen (Eds).  Therapy as Social
         Construction.  London: Sage, 166-185.

sumary of paper

Gergen, K. (1998) Constructionism and realism: how are we to go on? In I.
         Parker (ed) Social Constructionism, Discourse and Realism." London:Sage.

paraphrase of this paper
commentary on this paper

Gergen, K. (1999), An Invitation to Social Constructionism.  London: Sage.

From the Prologue: How Are We to Go On?: "This book is not intended as 'the last word,' but as a beginning." (

1. Traditions in Trouble
2. The Communal Construction of the Real and the Good
3. Discourse and Emancipation
4. Horizons of Human Inquiry
5. Toward Relational Selves
6. Dialogic Potentials
7. A Profusion of Practices
8. Postmodern Culture: Adventures in Analysis
9. Constructionism in Question.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity.

Argues that therapy has become a 'secular version of the confessional' (p.32)

Giroux, H. (1992). Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. New York: Routledge.

Goolishian, H. A. & Anderson, H. (1992).  From family to systemic therapy and beyond.  International annals of adolscent pyschiatry, Vol. 2, Allan Z Schwartzberg et al. (Eds.) Univ of Chicago Press.

Habermas, J.  (1970). On systematically distorted communication, Inquiry, 13, 205-18.

Says it is the hope of undistorted communication that makes language possible.  (See Parker, p.112)
Habermas, J.  (1971).  Knowledge and Human Interests.  Boston: Beacon Press.
Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston: Beacon Press. Vol. I: Reason and the Rationalization of Society,

Heritage, J.  (1984). Garfinkel and Ethomethodology.  Cambridge, UK.


Hare-Mustin, R.T.  & Marecek, J. (1992).  The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, postmodernism , and psychology.  Seldom Seen, Rarely Heard. Boulder Co.: Westview Press.

"In this article, we apply postmodernist thought to the psychology of gender...(p.228)"  "...Rather than passively observing reality, we actively construct the meanings that frame and organize our perceptions and experience.  Thus, our understanding of reality is a representation, that is a 'reprsentation.' not a replica of what is 'out there.'  Representations of reality are shared meanings that derive from language, history, and culture....It is not that formal laws and theories in psychology are wrong or useless, but rather, as Kuhn (1962) asserted, that they are explanations based on a set of social conventions.  Thus, whereas positivism asks what are the facts, constructivism asks what are the assumptions; whereas positivism asks what are the answers, constructivism asks what are the questions. (p.228-9)" "From a constructivist sandpoint, the real nature of men and women cannot be determined (p.229)."

Harre, R. (1994). The Discursive Mind. London: Sage.

Harre, R. (1998). The Singular Self.  London: Sage.

A rather philosophical book presenting a model for how the human sense of self-hood and individuality is created in language.


Hassan, I. (1987). Toward a concept of postmodernism. In I. Hassan (Ed.), The Postmodern Turn (pp. 84-96): Ohio State University Press.

Hassan, I. (1970). Frontiers of criticism: Metaphors of silence.  Virginia Quarterly, 46(1).

Held, B. S. (1995). Back to reality: A critique of postmodern theory in psychotherapy.  New York: Norton.

PMTH article mentioning Held

Hoffman, L. (1990).  Constructing realities: An art of lenses. Family Process, 29, 1-12.

Hoffman, L. (1991). A Reflexive Stance For Family Therapy. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapy. 10, 3&4, 4-17.

Critical of the modernist concept of self as a stable cluster of traits.

Hoffman, L. (1998). Setting aside the model in family therapy. In Michael F. Hoyt (Ed.)  The Handbook of Constructive Therapies: Innovative Approaches from Leading Practitioners.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hoffman, L. (1995). Exchanging Voices: A Collaborative Approach to Family Therapy. London: Karnac Books.

Howe, Irving "Mass Society and Postmodern Fiction," Partisan Review, vol. 26, no.  (Summer 1959), reprinted in his Decline of the New (New York, 1970), 190-207

Huyssen, A.  (1990).  Mapping the postmodern. In L. J. Nicholson.  Feminism/Postmodernism.  New York: Routledge.

Hynan, M. (1981). On the advantages of assuming that the techniques of psychotherapy are ineffective.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 18((1), 11-13.

Ingram, D. H. (1994).  Poststructuralist interpretation of the psychoanalytic relationship.  American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 22, 175-193.

Ingram, D. H. (1996), How words mean in analytic psychotherapy: A neo-Horneyan contribution. @ux(Journal of the American Academy of psychoanalysis), 24(3), 527-543.

Ingram, D. H. (1997).  The narrative perspective in dynamic psychiatry.  Presentation to the Society of Medical Psychoanalysts. February 25, 1997.

Click here for a full text version of this paper.

Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism, or the cultural logic of late capitalism, New Left Review, 146:53-92.

Katz, Arlene M.; Shotter, John. Hearing the patient's 'voice': toward a social poetics in diagnostic interviews. Social Science & Medicine v43, n6, 919-932.

The task is to develop a social poetics.  Instead of seeking a universal, cognitive understanding of events, a social poetics must 'move' us toward a new way of 'looking over' or participaitng in, the particular 'play' of unique events unfolding in the conversations between us.

Kaye, J. (1995).  Postfoundationalism and the language of psychotherapy research.  In J. Siegfried (Ed.), Therapeutic and everyday discourse as behavior change: Towards a micro-analysis in psychotherapy process research.  Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Says a fascination with postmodernism and postfoundationalism has developed in psychotherapy philosopies. 

Argues for a post-foundational paradigm.  He argues that traditional research does violence to the linguistic, interactional and contextual nature of psychotherapy change.  Kaye says: 

...research questions proposed from within the parameters delmited by the canons of scientific research tend to be disconnected from psychotherapy and indeed transform it into something else.  for not only are the qustions we bring to therapy theory laden, but our theories construct the phenomena they are desgined to explain...the theory-driven distinction we draw determine the questions we ask, the nature of our findings, and thus the picture we form on the basis of our results. (Kaye, 1995, p.38).

Kaye urges therapists to embrace a new postfoundational paradigm as a framework for both theory and practice. 

Kellner, Douglas. (1994). Baudrillard: A Critical Thinker, Oxford: Blackwell.]

Kerferd, G. B. (1981) The Sophistic Movement.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

"Plato's hostility to the sophists is obvious and has always been recognized " (p. 4)

Kvale, S. (1992).  Postmodern psychology: A contradiction in terms?  In S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 31-57).  London: Sage.

Lakoff, George.  (1987).  Women, Fire and Dangerous Things.  Chicago:University of  Chicago Press.

Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark.  (1980).  Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of  Chicago Press.

Larner, Glenn. (1998).  Through a glass darkly: Narrative as Destiny.  Theory & Psychology.  8(4), 549-572.


Laslett, B. (1973). The family as a public and private institution: An historical perspective.  Journal of Marriage and the Family,  35, 48-492.

Describes the introduction of hallways into Victorian homes and the impact this made on family experience.

Latour, Bruno and Woolgar. (1986).  Laboratory life: The construction of scientific facts. Princeton University Press.

Layton, L.  (1995). Trauma, gender identity and sexuality: Discourses of fragmentation. American Imago. 52, 107-125.

Critical of postmodernism saying that it celebrates the pathological fragmentation of the self.  This kind of fragmentation, it is argued, is a consequence of child abuse.  Uses a case presentation of a woman with a fragmented self to prove its point.

Levin, Harry.  What was Modernism?" Massachusetts Review, vol. 1, no. 4 (August 1960), reprinted in Refractions (New York 1968, 271-295).

Lyotard, J-F (1985).  Just Gaming (Fr. 1979) Minneapolis: U.  Minnesota Press.

Just Gaming is an interview conducted by Jean-Loup Thebaud on topics that Lyotard talks about in the Postmodern Condition.

Lyotard, J-F. (1984).  The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Lyotard's now classic book on postmodernism.  In it, Lyotard introduces the concept of paralogy and defines postmodernism as an incredulity towards metanarratives.

Lyotard, J-F (1988).  The Differend: Phrases in Dispute.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

"[A] differend would be a caase of conflict, between (at least) two parties, that cannot be equitably resolved for lack of a rule of judgment applicable to both arguments." (p.xi)

Lyotard, J-F (1989). Lessons in Paganism. In Andrew Benjamin (Ed.) The Lyotard Reader. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

Maturana, H. & Varela, V. Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science [ Cohen, Robert S., and Marx W. Wartofsky (eds.) ], Vol. 42, Dordecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1980.

This is considered the main published reference on autopoiesis. The book contains two key papers reprinted with an extended introduction by Maturana and a preface by Stafford Beer.  Short but painstakingly detailed. 

Maturana, H. and Varela, F. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding, Boston: Shambhala / New Science Press, 1987. Revised paperback edition released in 1992.

Popular summary of their basic ideas. 
PMTH article

McGuire, W. J. (1973).  The yin and yang of progress in social psychology.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 446-56.

McNamee, S. & Gregen, K J. (1999). Relational Responsibility: Resources for Sustainable Dialogue.  Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Amazon page on this book

Mendez, , C. Coddou, F. & Maturana, H. (1988) The bringing forth of pathology. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 9, 144-172

Merton, R. K. (1973). The Sociology of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Studied the way in which particular social conditions paved the way for the emergence of modern science and argued that this emergence was fostered by the rise of Puritanism in the seventeenth century.

Merton studied the sociology of error.  Error was to have been determined by bias and psychological characteristics of the researcher while true information was gathered from the nature of things when not seen in a biased way.

Mischel, Walter.  (1968). Personality and Assessment.  New York: Wiley.

A classic text that demonstrated that, for most traits, humans show very poor consistency across situations.  A person who is selfish in one situation, for example, is not likely to be selfish inn others.  Correlation across situations, using standard measures,  are rarely above .30.   Many subsequent studies have confirmed this early finding.


Miller, P., & Rose, N. (1994).  On therapeutic authority: Psychoanalytic expertise under advanced liberalism. History of the Human Sciences, 7(3), 29-64.

Morss, John R. (1996). Growing Critical: Alternatives to Developmental Psychology.  London: Routledge.

A very readable textbook that educates and engages the reader. The argument of the book, he says "is that there is no such thing as 'development'.  If anything, development is a fiction or set of fictions." (p.152) 

"Development"  (such as child development) is systematically deconstructed in this text, referring primarily to poststructuralism (especially Foucault, but also Derrida and the authors in psychology influenced by Foucault and Derrida).

Preface  viii
Acknowledgements x
1 Introduction 1
2 Naturally Social: Vygotsky and the social contxt of development  10
3 Persons in conversation: the social construction of development   27 
4 The problem of development  47
5 Marxism and the critique of development  55
6 Psychoanalysis and the subversion of development  90
7 Post-structualism and the deconstruction of development  123
8 Writing against development  148
References  159
Name Index  165
Subject index 168

Muir, F. (1983). An Irreverent and Almost Complete Social History of the Bathroom. New York: Stein & Day, .

Natterson, Joseph M. Beyond countertransference: The therapist's subjectivity in the  therapeutic process. Jason Aronson, Inc; Northvale, NJ, US, 1991. xi, 242 pp.

link to information on this book.

Newman, F. (1991).  The Myth of Psychology.  New York: Castillio International.

From the foreword by Leonora B. Fulani, Ph.D.: 
  The first person to teach me anything seriously useful about politics and or psychology was the man I am about to introduce to you: Dr. Fred Newman. 
   I first heard him lecture on psyco9logy, actually on social therapy, in the late '70s.  Although I did not understand evertything that he was saying, I was very intrigued by the progressiveness of the politics guiding his talk.  I went into group therapy with Dr. Newman in the early '80s while I was in individual therapy with a Black lesbian gestalt therapist.  I remained in that arrangement for a year...It was in Fred Newman's social therapy group that I was able to learn some profound lessons about racism... 
   The work reflected in this book represents the most advanced, and successful, attempt I know of to develop a radically humanistic theory and practice of psychology, Black or white.

Newman, Fred; Holzman, Lois. (1993) Lev Vygotsky: Revolutionary scientist.
Routledge; London, England.

Newman, Fred.  (1996). Performance of a Lifetime.  New York: Castillo International, Inc.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements vii
A Preface by Phyllis ix
Me 'n' Philosphy: A Personal Introduction 3
I. Philosophizing without Philosophy  27
II. The Unity of Learning, Developing, Philosophizing, Performing and Joy:
     A Completion  83
     Two Kinds of Learning  86
     Philosophical Therapy  110
     Let's Perform  143
III. The Healthy Life  169
      A philosophy (with a small "p") of health (with a small "h")   174
      The Re-Forming of Emotional Life   207
Bibliography   233
Index   238

"The point isn't to know History (the "subject"), but to see yourself as maker/performer of history (the collective life that human beings create together out of what there is).  I'm here to direct you in a peroformance of philosophizing -- the Performance of a Lifetime - an activity which opens the door to living joyiously." (p.30)

Philosophizing is an activity that allows us to experience our the absence of philosophizing it's exceedingly difficult for us to know who we are historically, lacking a sense of history we're unable to discover ourselves in that juncture (culture, in  the broadest sense) where history and society meet -- which is where I thin joyousness lies." (p.31)

Newman, F. and Holzman, L. (1997). The End of Knowing: A Developmental Way of Learning. Routledge.

Review of End of Knowing by Tom Strong
Response to Strong's Review by Holzman and Newman
Is Newman and Holzman's Social Therapy a Metanarrative?
Where is Social Therapy Happening?
Parker's Criticism of the End of Knowing
More on Parker's Criticism of the End of Knowing
Holzman and Newman's response to Parker's criticism

Nietzsche, F.  (1966).  Beyond Good and Evil.  In Walter Kaufman (Ed & Trans.). @ux(Basic Writings of Nietzsche).  New York: Random House.

Nietzsche, F. (1967). On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo.  Walter Kaufmann (Ed.) New York: Vintage Books.

Nietzsche, F. (1954).  Thus Spoke Zarathustra.  In W. Kaufmann (Ed.) The Portable Nietzsche:Selectedand translated with an introduction,prefaces, and notes.  New York: The Viking Press.

O'Hanlon, B. (1994, Nov./Dec.).  The Third Wave.  The Family Therapy Networker, pp.18-26.

Parker, I. (1990). The Abstraction and Representation of Social psychology.  In I. Parker & J. Shotter (Eds.) Deconstructing Social Psychology.  London: Routledge.

Parker, I., Georgaca, E., Harper, D., McLaughlin, T., & Stowall-Smith, M. (1995).  Deconstructing psychopathology.  London: Sage.

Parker, I. (1992). Discourse Dynamics: Critical Analysis for Social and Individual Psychology. London: Routledge.

Click here to read more about this book.

Parker, I.  (1998). Against postmodernism: Psychology in Cultural Context.  Theory & Psychology, 8(5), 601-627.

Parker, I. (1998).  Realism, Relativism and Critique in Psychology.  In Ian Parker (Ed.) Social Constructionism, Discourse and Realism.  London: Sage Publications.

An introductory chapter for his edited book.  He worries that relativism will undermine the project of a critical psychology, but notes, on the other hand,  that realism tends to play into the hands of tradition rather than supporting critical psychology that Parker supports.  Parker's own project sees psychological facts as socially constructed but subjectivity as produced in the discourse that organizes our social arrangments.

Pearce, W. B. and Cronen, V. E. (1980). Communication, Action and Meaning: The Creation of Social Realities. New York: Praeger.

A postmodern ethnographic work that foregrounds dialogue as opposed to monologue, and emphasizes the cooperative and collaborative nature of the ethnographic situation. 

Pearce and Cronen talk about the different levels in the personality, manifest versus latent content, superficial versus underlying causes, and they divide levels of communication into speech act, episode, relationship, lifescript, family myth and cultural program. 

Pollner, M.  (1987).  Mundane Reason: Reality in Everyday Sociological Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press/

Mundane Reason is the assumption that if someone else where geographically where we were that person would observe what we observe.  It is one of the basic assumptions of empiricism.

Polkinghorne, D. (1992).  Postmodern epistemology of practice.  In S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and Postmodernism (pp. 146-165). London: Sage.

Popper, Karl (1945/1966). The Open Society and Its Enemies.  Routledge & Kegan Paul (2 volumes).  U.S. edition, Princeton University Press.

    This book was written while Popper, a German Jew, was in exile fom Hitler during WW II and Hitler was having success after success.  Its purpose is to explain the appeal of totalitarianism.  Popper held that most people did not want responsibility for their lives because responsibility frightened them and totalitarianism seemed to offer a kind of security. 
    The second volume contains a critique of Marx  Popper saw the future as riding on our attempts to solve our problems and involivng unpredictables.  This did not fit with the Marxist analysis.  He also challenged Marx' claim that he (Marx) had provided a 'scientific socialism.'  Popper held that what Marx produced was not science.

Popper, K. (1979). Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

"Objective knowledge" for Popper is something that can be discussed, argued about, attacked, defended, used without reference to the person that created it.  Only objective knowledge is criticizeable.  It becomes objective when we say it, and especially when we write it down (p.25). 

In this book, Popper distinguishes between three worlds saying: 

[F]irst, the world of physical objects or of physical states, secondly, the world of states of consciousness, or mental states, or perhaps of behavioral dispositions to act; and thirdly, the world of objective contents of thought, especially of scientific and poetic thoughts and works of art.  (p.106)

Potter, J. (1996). Representing reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 1996.

Click here to read more about this  book.

Potter, J. and Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour, London: Sage.

Parker (1992, 127) says that this book inspired a tradition of work. 
Parker (1992, 128) says these authors use Kuhnian notions of paradigm shifts. 

We are looking for 'recurrently used systems of terms used for charaterizing and evaluating actions, events and other phenomena...a limited range f terms used in particular stylistic and grammatical constructions...[often] ...organized around specific metaphors and figures of speech, 149).

Potter, J. (1988). What is reflexive about discourse analysis? - The case of reading readings' In S. Woolgar (ed.) Knowledge and Relexivity: New Frntiers in the Sociology of Knowledge.  London: Sage.
Discusses notions of reflexivity.

Quine, W. V. O., (1960). Word and Object. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Argues that is impossible for science to have pure, ostensive definition of terms.

Renik,O. (1993). Analytic interaction: conceptualizing technique in light of the analyst's irreducible
subjectivity. Psychoanal. Q., 62: 553-571.

link to more information on this article

Riikonen, Eero (1999). Riikonen. Inspiring Dialogues and Relational Responsibility. In McNamee, Sheila (Ed); Gergen, Kenneth J. (Ed)
Relational responsibility: Resources for sustainable dialogue. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc (1999) xii, 236 pp.

"It is relatively easy to produce suffocating, sterile, oppressive, depressive, or frightening interactional environments.  Correspondingly, it is possible to create enabling, empowering and trust-enhancing conversational contexts. " (p.142)

Rorty, R. (1979).  Philosophy and the mirror of nature.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Explains how we have the model of our minds as mirroring nature and he deconstructs this model.

Rorty, R. (1989).  Foucault and epistemology.  In D. C. Hoy (Ed.), Foucault: A critical reader (pp.41-50). Oxford: Blackwell.

Rose, N. (1989). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self.  London Routledge.
Suggests that psychotherapy is best understood as a new form of authority through which the many may be transformed by the few.

Russell, R. L. (1994). Critically reading psychotherapy process research: A brief enactment.  In R. L. Russell (Ed.), Reassessing psychotherapy research (pp. 166-184). New York: Guilford.

Complains that the drug metaphor has led us to believe that therapy techniques can be unproblematically defined outside of a local context.

Russell, R. L. (1986).  The inadvisability of admixing psychoanalysis with other forms of psychotherapy.  Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 16, 76-85.

Says that psychotherapy studies conducted within the traditional empirical model are conceptually and methodologically flawed.

Russell, R. L. (1987). Psychotherapeutic discourse: Future directions and the critical pluralistic attitude.  In R. L. Russell (Ed.) Language in psychotherapy: Strategies of discovery (pp.341-351).  New York: Guilford.

Named the dominant paradigm in psychotherapy the "drug metaphor." 

Identifies what he calls a 'general theoretical consensus' that the crucial information about the process of therapeutic change is embedded in the verbal and nonverbal communications taking place within the therapy session.  He says that the process-outcome reseach tries to show how this works.

Sampson, E. (1993). Celebrating the Other: A Dialogic Account of Human Nature.  Boulder, Co.: Westview Press.
Deconstructs the self and studies possessive individualism and the celebration of self and contrasts it with dialogism or a celebration of the Other.

Sass, L.A. & Woolfolk, R. L. (1988). Psychoanalysis and the hermeneutic turn: A critique of narrative truth and historical truth.  Journal fo the American psychoanalytic Association, 36, 429-454.

Presents a critical introduction to the hermeneutic or interpretive perspective on psychoanalysis through a discussion of D. Spence's (1982) Narrative Truth and Historical.

Sass, L.A. (1992).  The epic of disbelief: The postmodernist turn in contemporary psychoanalysis.  In S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 167-182).  London: Sage.

Schafer, R. (1980).  Narrative actions in psychoanalysis.  Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Scholes, R. (1989). Protocols of Reading.  New Haven , CT: Yale University Press.

Argues that 'since there is no truth, there is no error either, and all beliefs are equal.' 

Schon, Donald A. Generative Metaphor: A Perspective on Problem-Setting in Social policy.  In Andrew Ortony (Ed.) Metaphor and Thought.  Cambridge University Press, 1979, 255-283.

This is a wondrfully readable essay with good picturesque examples of generative metaphor.

He says in this article (footnote #3) that the term generative metaphor was first used in  Schon, D., and Bamberger, J. 1976.  The figural/ formal transaction: A parable of generative metaphor. (Mimeo.) Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T., Division for Study and Research in Education. 

Searle, J. R. (1995).  The Construction of Social Reality, New York: Free Press.

PMTH Book review
Conversation about this book
More conversation about this book
Shapiro, D. A., Harper, H., Startup, M., Reynolds, S., Bird, D., & Suokas, A. (1994). The high water mark of the drug metaphor: A meta-analytic critique of process-outcome research.  In R.L. Russell (Ed., Reassessing psychotherapy research (pp.1-35).  new York: Guilford.
Suggests that failure to find significance between different treatment processes in terms of outcome can reflect limitations of the research paradigms, methods used, or of the therapy treatment itself. (p.30) 

Stancombe & White quote the article and insert their own emphasis on the fact that this research failure may result from lack of differences in the treatment itself (p.582)

Shawver, Lois and Dokecki, Paul.  (1970). A Wittgensteininan analysis of the role of self-reports in psychology.  Psychological Records,  20, 289-296.

Shawver, Lois and Lubach, John.  (1977). "Value attribution in group psychotherapy." @ux(Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology),  45(2), 228-236.

Study shows that (at the time) clients in group therapy tended to blame their significant others for their problems while excusing themselves. Therapists and other members of the group tended to blame both the client and the significant otehrs.

Shawver, Lois.  (1983). Harnessing the power of interpretive language.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,  20(1), 3-11.

click here for a copy of this paper.

Shawver, Lois.  (1983). On the disadvantages of assuming that the techniques of psychotherapy are ineffective: a reply to Hynan.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,  20(2), 254-256.

Shawver, L. (1996a).  What Postmodernism Can Do for Psychoanalysis: A Guide to the Postmodern Vision.  The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 56(4), pp.371-394.

This article introduces postmodern concepts like "fragmentation," "decentered," "Other," and "dialogic," as well as terms that are more specifically Derridean such as "differAnce," "deconstruction," "logocentrism" and the "metaphysics of presence" and it talks about later Wittgenstein as well as  Derrida, Lacan, and Lyotard and relates them all to the notion of psychoanalysis or psychotherapy.  In psychoanalytic circles this paper has been dubbed the "postmodern primer."  Write me if you would like an electronic version of this article.
Shawver, L. (1996b).  Noticing Metaphor in the Psychoanalytic Session. The American journal of psychoanalysis, 56(4), pp. 460-462.
Shawver, L. (1998a). Lacan's Theory of Self and the Story of the Last Cookie. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 8(3), pp. 329-336.
This is an introductory paper, meaning it should be readable to those with no background in Lacan.  It is a short fictional narrative of a child's experiences in developing an Other that is woven heavily with selected quotations from Lacan.  I think you'll find the fictional narrative makes Lacan's writing clearer, and it shows how Lacanian psychoanalysis uses the concept of an Other.
Shawver, L. (1998b). Postmodernizing the Unconscious.  The American Journal of Psychoanalysis.58(4), pp. 329-336.
This paper studys the question of how postmodern Freud was at various  times in his writing career and how to enhance the postmodern dimension of psychoanalysis today.  It begins by deconstructing the ancient images that hold us conceptually captive according to both Derrida and Wittgenstein. In Derrida this is called our "logocentrism."  In Wittgenstein, it is a misleading picture of language that holds us captive in the fly bottle. Then the paper studies a series of Freud's work to discover that his work was initally postmodern but became modern in some ways.    The paper ends with an account of Lyotard's concept of "paralogy" as a way of postmodernizing psychoanalysis.  Lyotard, by the way, was a Wittgensteinian and the notion of paralogy is related to the Wittgensteinian idea of a language game.  This paper will not be available until the December issue of this journal.
Shawver, L. (1998c), On the Clinical Relevance of Selected Postmodern Ideas: with a Focus on Lyotard's Concept of "Differend".  Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 26(4).
This paper is probably the one that will be the most relevant to family therapy.  It introduces Lyotard's concept of "differend."  A differend is a misunderstanding that is based on two people operating within different language-games.  Like the prior paper, this paper also explains how Lyotard's concept of paralogy.  This paper also explains how paralogy can help us conceptualize postmodern treatment for the differend.  This paper will also become available in a couple of months.
Shotter, J. (1993).   Conversational Realities.  Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
excerpts and annotation
Shotter, J. (1992). 'Getting in Touch': The meta-methodology of a postmodern science of mental life. In S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and Postmodernism (pp.58-73).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

Shotter, J. (1984). Social Accountability and Selfhood.  New York: Basil Blackwll.

Part One: Accounting Practices and their Paradigms 
Part Two: The Development of Selfhood 
Part Three: Social Accountability 
Part Four: Ecological Being: Being Ecological

Siegfried, J. (Ed.). (1994). The status of common sense in psychology.  Norwood, NJ: Alex.

Siegfried, J. (Ed.). (1995). Therapeutic and everyday discourse as behavior change: Toards a micro-analysis in psychotehrapy process research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Smail, D. (1996).  Environmental cause and therapeutic cure: The impotence of insight.  Psychotherapy Section Newsletter, British Psychological Society, 6-16.

The way therapists ordinarily do therapy, they are denied access to the lived realities they are trying to change.

Speed, B. (1991).  Reality exists OK?  An argument against constructivism and social constructionism. Journal of Family Therapy, 13, 395-409.

Spence, D. (1982).  Narrative Truth and Historical Truth.  New York: Basic Books.

Spence, D. (1987). The Freudian Metaphor.  New York: W. W. Norton.

I. The Metaphorical Nature of Psychoanalytic Theory
2. The Metaphorical Unconsicous
3. The Myth of the Innocent Analyst
4. The Metaphor of Psychoanalysis as Science
5. The Sherlock Holmes Tradition: The Narrative Metaphor
6. Rule Governed but not Rule-Bound: The Legal Metaphor
7. The Post-Freudian Metaphor

Stancombe, J. & White, S. (1998) Psychotherapy without foundations?  Hermeneutics, discourse and end of certainty.  Theory & Psychology. 8(5), 579-599.

Argue that many so called "postmodern" therapies are modern in that they market themselves as having the total answer.  The authors introduce the concept of "post-therapeutics" in an attempt to get beyond modern answers to therapy.  The concept is left incompletely defined in order to invite collaborative work.

Stancombe, J. & White, S. (1997).  Notes on the tenacity of therapeutic presuppositions in process research: Examining the artfulness of blamings in family therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 19(1), 21-41.

Stiles, W. B., & Shapiro, D. A. (1989). Abuse of the drug metaphor in psychotherapy process-outcome research. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 521-543.

Stiles, W. B., Shapiro, D. A., & Harper, H. (1994).  Finding the ways from process to outcome: Blin alleys and unmarked trails.  In R. L. Russell (Ed.), Reassessing psychotherapy research (pp. 36-64). New York: Guilford.

Strawson, P. F.  (1959).  Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. Methuen: London.

Tomm, K. (1989). 'Externalizing the problem and internalizing personal agency.  Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapy, 8.


Tomm, K. (1987). 'Interventive interviewing: Part II. Reflexive questioning as a means to enable self-healing'. Family Process, 26: 167-84.

Talked about reflexive questioning.

Tomm, K. (1990). 'A critique of the DSM' Dulwich Centre Newsletter (Adelaide).

Distinctions made in traditional patterns of psychiatric assessment are more pathologizing than healing.  If therapists are not mindful of the possible effects of the distinctions they introduce, they inadvertently contribute to more pathology.

Tomm, K. (1993). The Courage to Protest.  In Gilligan, S. & Price, R. (Eds.)  Therapeutic Conversations.  New York: W. W. Norton.

Varela, F.,   Thompson, E. & Rosch, E. (1991).  The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience, by Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991,

Introduces enactivism.
read review by Daniel Dennett

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978).  Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes.  Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

White, M. & Epston, D. (1990).  Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. New York: W. W. Norton.

Introduces a form of therapy that has become very popular in family therapy circles.  It involves helping clients re-author their lives, that is, learn to think of their lives within the framework of different stories.  The re-authored stories externalize the client's stated problem and notice unique outcomes.

White, M. (2000). Reflections on narrative practice. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.

White, M. (1997). Narratives of therapists' lives. Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications.

White, M. (1995). Re-Authoring lives: interviews and essays. Adelaide: DulwichCentre Publications.

Williams, James. (1998).Lyotard: Towards a Postmodern Philosophy.

1. Introduction  1
2. Lyotard's Materialism  9
   Theory and practice
    A critical defence
    Questions of strategy
    Limits of representation, events, 
           absolute difference and the avant-garde
3. States of Society: The Postmodern Condition  26
    General features of the postmodern condition
    The event in a postmodern context 
4. States of Society: The Libidinal Economy  38
    General features of the libidinal economy
    The event in a libidinal context
     Narrative and libidinal economy
     Lyotard and Freud
     Incompossibility and the 'orienting zero'
     Lyotard and Marx
     Libidinal economy and capital
5. Methodology  62
     Methodological Problems
     Lyotard's philosophy of language
     Phrases, genres and the differend
     The problem of reference
      Presentation and situation
      Incommensurability and heterogeneity
      The sublime and the differend
      The methods of libidinal economics
 6. Politics   101
       Political Acts
       Testifying to the differend
       Dissimulation in the libidinal economy
7. Hegel, Levinas and Capital  118
        Arguments against Hegel
        Arguments with Levinas
        Capitalism and the differend
8. Critical Debates   129
       Lyotard, Deleuze and Guattari
       Critical Approaches to the Postmodern Condition
       Manfred Frank on Habermas and Lyotard
       Lyotard and Deconstruction
References  146
Indx 149

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, (1922).   Tractatus logico-philosophicus, New York, Harcourt, Brace & company, inc.; London.

Wittgenstein, L. (1963). Philosophical Investigations.  New York: The Macmillan Company.

  1. Introductory reading of first three passages in this book
  2. On Wittgenstein's concept of a language game from the Philosophical Investigations

Wittgenstein, L. (1980).  Culture and Value.  Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.