History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)
Copyright © 20210416 09:40:13 EDT

This posting is an annotated bibliography focused broadly on touchscreen and gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen and touch computing), both hardware and software. It has been a continuing work-in-progress since the 1980s. It includes references on related technical topics I have encountered in my career: for example PDAs/highly-portable computing, cryptographic communications, signature verification, biometric authentication, and digital rights management (DRM). I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field.

It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any of the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, touch/gesture user interfaces, multi-touch computing, passive and active tactile feedback, touch and proximity sensors, augmented reality, haptics, context-dependent intrepretation of user input, and applications including the same. It covers the time period from approximately 1887 / 1891 (first electronic tablets with "touch" input and a display), through 1914 (first electronic gesture/handwriting-recognition input and user-interface system), to the first handwriting-recognition tablet device connected to a modern electronic computer in 1957 (the "Stylator") and the more famous Rand Tablet (1961), to the present day.

Like any subject, the focus has modulated over the decades, and this bibliography follows these topics both forward in time, and historically back in time. Tablets and touchscreens have evolved into pointing, locating and gesturing sensors with three-dimensional input with six degrees of freedom and more.

For example, there are no real lines between touch sensing for robotics, touch and contact sensing for user human input, and touch and proximity sensing in general. Likewise, there are no real lines between haptics for touchscreens, haptics for instrumentation, and biometric feedback. Earlier work on handwriting recognition, with handwritten symbols sometimes used for command input as "gestures", has evolved to be part of a much broader range of gestures, including in-air and 3D gestures. Command user interfaces have merged with direct manipulation, and then with graphical user interfaces and virtual reality. Authenticating handwritten signatures has evolved to additional forms of dynamic biometrics. Haptic feedback has evolved from "simple" force-feedback to encompass audio, tactile, and visual signaling. Virtual reality systems seem to have waxed and waned, and waxed again.

It is, indeed, a rich and complicated field, in all its aspects.

Jean Renard Ward For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services,
including my CV for consulting or as an expert witness:
URL:   http://www.ruetersward.com.)
e-mail: jrward@alum.mit.edu
Google Voice: 617-600-4095

References from the approximate years 2001 to 2003.

biblio00 (Prev page)   (Prev page) Main Page Main Page Main Page (Next page)   (Next page) biblio05
biblio00 (Prev page)  (Prev page) Main Page Main Page Main Page (Next page)  (Next page) biblio05
Mirrors of this page can be found at:


         "Fiat  justitia,  ruat  caelum."             
 ("Let justice be done, though the heavens may fall.")
        -- William Murray, English Jurist             
    in his 1772 Somersett decision that chattel       
    Slavery neither be compatible with English common 
    law, nor have been established in any overriding  
    law by parliament, and thus no English ship may   
    transport slaves against their will.              
    The American Revolution started four years later. 
Und aus dem Chaos sprach eine Stimme zu mir:
    "Lächle und sei froh,                   
     es könnte schlimmer kommen!"           
Und ich lachte und war froh --              
    denn es kam schlimmer.                  
        -- Otto Waalkes                     
        Kaberettist und Volksphilosoph      

Valid HTML 4.01