History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)
Copyright © 20230911 03:52:06 EDT

This posting is an annotated bibliography focused broadly on touchscreen and gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen and touch computing), both hardware and software. It has been a continuing work-in-progress since the 1980s. It includes references on related technical topics I have encountered in my career: for example PDAs/highly-portable computing, cryptographic communications, signature verification, biometric authentication, and digital rights management (DRM). I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field.

It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any of the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, touch/gesture user interfaces, multi-touch computing, passive and active tactile feedback, touch and proximity sensors, augmented reality, haptics, context-dependent intrepretation of user input, and applications including the same. It covers the time period from approximately 1887 / 1891 (first electronic tablets with "touch" input and a display), through 1914 (first electronic gesture/handwriting-recognition input and user-interface system), to the first handwriting-recognition tablet device connected to a modern electronic computer in 1957 (the "Stylator") and the more famous Rand Tablet (1961), to the present day.

As with any subject, the focus has modulated over the decades, and this bibliography follows these topics both forward in time, and historically back in time. Tablets and touchscreens have evolved into a variety of pointing devices, into PDAs and smart-phones, locating and gesturing sensors with three-dimensional input with six degrees of freedom, and more.

For example, there are no real lines between touch sensing for robotics, touch and contact sensing for user human input, fingerprint sensors, and touch and proximity sensing in general.

Likewise, there are no real lines between haptics for touchscreens, haptics for instrumentation, and biometric feedback. Earlier work on handwriting recognition, with handwritten symbols sometimes used for command input as "gestures", has evolved to be part of a much broader range of gestures, including in-air and 3D gestures.

Command user interfaces have merged with direct manipulation, and then with graphical user interfaces and virtual reality. Authenticating handwritten signatures has evolved to additional forms of dynamic biometrics. Haptic feedback has evolved from "simple" force-feedback to encompass tactile stimulation using electrovibration and sonic shock waves, and perceptual effects of visual and audio signaling. Virtual reality systems seem to have waxed and waned, and waxed again.

It is, indeed, a rich and complicated field, in all its aspects.

Jean Renard Ward For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services,
including my CV for consulting or as an expert witness:
URL:   http://www.ruetersward.com.)
e-mail: jrward@alum.mit.edu
Google Voice: 617-600-4095

References from the approximate years 2001 to 2003.

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  • [ShanisJ03a] Shanis, Jenna and Hedge, Alan J. "An Exploration of Multi-Touch Technology: Comparison of a split-angle Keyboard with Multitouch and Current Input Technologies", Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th meeting, October 13..17, 2003 Denver CO
  • [ShannonR01a] Shannon, Robert "Accordion-Fold Laptop Computer", US Patent 6,256,192, July 3, 2001
  • [SharmaS03a] Sharma, Sunity; Narang, Subhash; Bhasin, Kuldip; and Sharma, Madan Lal "Method of producing and depositing a metal film", US Patent 6,548,122, April 15, 2003
  • [Sharp02a] Sharp Corporation "Sharp Introduces the SL-C700 Zaurus Personal Mobile Tool: PDA with easy-to-type keyboard and Horizonal or Vertical View", Sharp Corporation press release, November 12, 2002
  • [ShawSJ03a] Shaw, Scott J.; Day, Shawn P.; Trent, Robert A. Jr.; Gillespie, David W.; and Errington, Andrew M. "Capacitive Mouse", US Patent 6,587,093, July 1, 2003
  • [ShellSR02a] Shell, Scott R.; Shields, Kevin Timothy; and Kitowitz, Anthony "Loading Status in a Hypermedia Browser Having a Limited Available Display Area", US Patent 6,339,780, January 15, 2002
  • [ShilmanM02a] Shilman, Michael; Pasula, Hanna; Russell, Stuart; and Newton, Richard "Statistical Visual Language Models for Ink Parsing", Proc. AAAI Spring 2002 Symp. on Sketch Understanding pp. 126..132, 2002
  • [ShilmanM03b] Shilman, Michael; Wei, Zile; Raghupathy, Sashi; Simard, Patrice; and Jones, David "Discerning structure from freeform handwritten notes", Proc. IEEE 7th Int'l. Conf. on Document Analysis and Recognition, Edinburgh, Scotland, August 3..6, 2003
  • [ShneidermanB03a] Shneiderman, Ben "Promoting Universal Usability with Multi-Layer interface Design", Proc. CUU '03, November 10-11, 2003, Vancouver, Canada
  • [ShwartsSL01a] Shwarts, Scott L. and Dunham, David R. "Tool Set for Navigating Through and Electronic Book", US Patent 6,243,071, June 5, 2001
  • [SiegelSH02a] Siegel, Steven H. "Method for the auditory navigation of text", US Patent 6,442,523, August 27, 2002
  • [Siemens01a] Siemens AG "KidPad - das kindgerecht Online-Multimediagerät", Innovations-Report, June 21 2001
  • [Siemens03a] Leiner, Ulrich "User Interface Design for Mobile Phones", Siemens, November 2003, presented in Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca, Mexico
  • [SignerB03a] Signer, Beat "Beat Signer: Paper++, Digitally Augmented Paper, XIMA, iServer, Digital Paper", Web posting, www.inf.ethz.ch/~signer, 2003
  • [SignerB03b] Signer, Beat "Paper++ Disappearing Computer Programme", Web posting, www.inf.ethz.ch/~signer, 2003
  • [SilfverbergM03a] Silfverberg, Miika; Korhonen, Panu; and Mackenzie, Ian Scott "Zooming and panning content on a display screen", PCT Patent Application WO 03/021568/A1, March 13, 2003
  • [SilverbrookK03a] Silberbrook, Kia and King, Tobin Allice "Hand Held Mobile Phone with Integral Internal Pointer", US Patent 6,628,430, September 30, 2003
  • [SilvesterKC03a] Silvester, Kelan Craig "Multiprocessor notebook computer with a tablet PC conversion capability", US Patent Application 2003/0112585 A1, June 19, 2003
  • [SinasohnR02a] Sinasohn, Roger "Device information GRIDCase 3 ruggedized / GRID Compass 1101 Clamshell--GRIDPad 1910 ruggedized", Uncle Rodger's Computers, www.sinasohn.com, copyright 2002
  • [SinclairI01a] Sinclair, Ian "Sensors and Transducers, 3rd Edition", Biddles Ltd, Great Britain, 2001
  • [SinclairMJ03a] Sinclair, Michael J.; Hinckley, Kenneth P.; Kajiya, James T. and Sherman, Nathan C. "Capacitance Touch Slider", US Patent Application 2003/0028345, February 6, 2003
  • [SingerM02a] Singer, Michael "Text Display with User-Defined Appearance an Automatic Scrolling", US Patent Application 20020130891, September 19, 2002
  • [SinghM02a] Singh, Mona and Lands, Robert M. "Display Control for Hand-held Data Processing Devices", US Patent 6,400,376, June 4, 2002
  • [SinghM02b] Singh, Mona "Movable Magnification Icons for Electronic Display Screens", US Patent 6,359,615, March 19, 2002
  • [SitaJ02a] Sita, Jodi; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Douglas K. "Forensic Handwriting Examiners' Expertise for Signature Comparison", Jnl. Forensic Sci., September 2002, vol 47 no 5, Paper ID JFS2002011_475, www.astm.org
  • [SklarewR01a] Sklarew, Ralph "Handwritten Keyboardless Entry Computer System", US Patent 6,212,297, April 3, 2001
  • [SkoogSK01a] Skoog, Steven K. "Digitizer stylus with memory for storing handwriting data", US Patent 6,195,446, February 27, 2001
  • [SmailagicA02a] Smailagic, Asim and Siewiorek, Daniel "Application Design for Wearable and Context-Aware Computers", IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol 1 No 4, Oct-Dec 2002, pp. 20-29
  • [SmartTech03a] SMART Technologies Inc. "SMART Board 3000 interactive whiteboard", www.smarttech.com, 2003
  • [SmartTech03b] SMART Technologies Inc. "SmartTech Smart board software for Windows Whiteboard", www.smarttech.com, 2003
  • [SmartTech03c] SMART Technologies "Bridgit Conferencing Software User's Guide", www.smarttech.com, 2003
  • [SmartTech03d] SMART Technologies "Smart Technologies: DViT Digital Vision Touch Technology White Paper", www.smarttech.com, 2003
  • [SmartTech03e] SMART Technologies "Smart Technologies Whiteboard product information", www.smarttech.com, 2003
  • [SmithBA03a] Smith, Barton Allen and Zimmerman, Thomas Guthrie "Digital pen using interferometry for relative and absolute pen position", US Patent 6,592,039, July 15, 2003
  • [SmithDX01a] Smith, Donald X. "Computing apparatus having multiple pointing devices", US Patent 6,204,837, March 20, 2001
  • [SmithJC01a] Smith, Jeffrey C. and Bandini, Jean-Christophe "Private trackable URLs for directed document delivery", US Patent 6,192,407, February 20, 2001
  • [SmithiesS01a] Smithies, Steve; Novins, Kevin; and Arvo, James "Equation Entry and Editing via Handwriting and Gesture Recognition", Behavior and Information Technology, Vol 20 No 1, January 2001, pp. 53-67
  • [SnyderC01a] Snyder, Carolyn "Paper prototyping", Web posting, 1 November 2001, http://snyderconsulting.net
  • [SnyderC03a] Snyder, Carolyn "Paper prototyping: The Fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces", Excerpt from book of this title, Morgan Kaufmann, pubs. 2003
  • [SonIK03a] Son, Il-Kown and Shim, Bong-Chun "Automatic controllable display device according to image display direction", PCT Patent Application WO03003729A1, January 9, 2003
  • [Sony01a] Sony Corporation "Sony Memory Stick Camera Module Operating Instructions, PEGA-MSC1", Sony Corp., 2001
  • [SpringerS03a] Springer, Scott and Garwood, Bob "Electronic Sensors: in the Car Wash", Auto Laundry News, June 2003
  • [SrihariSN02a] Srihari, Sargur N.; Cha, Sung-Hyuk; Arora, Hina; and Lee, Sangjik "Individuality of Handwriting", Jnl. Forensic Science, July 2002, vol 47 no 4
  • [StifelmanL01a] Stifelman, Lisa; Arons, Barry; and Schmandt, Chris "The Audio Notebook: Paper and Pen Interaction with Structured Speech", Proc. CHI 2001, March 2001, CHI Letters Vol 3 No 1, pp. 182-189
  • [StolkRD01a] Stolk, Richard D. and Keyes, William J. "Resistive Sheet Patterning Process and Product Thereof", US Patent 6,194,127, February 27, 2001
  • [StorkA02a] Stork, A.; Santos, P.; Fleisch, T.; and Araujo, B. "SmartSketches: A Multimodal Approach to Improve Usability in the Early States of Product -- Recommendations for Base Hardware and System Software", Tech. Rpt. D5, Control IST-2000-28169, Information Society Technologies Programme (Spain) November 20, 2002
  • [StorkDG01a] Stork, David G.; Angelo, Michael; and Wolff, Gregory J. "Method and Apparatus for Tracking a Hand-held Writing Instrument with Multiple Sensors That Are Calibrated by Placing the Writing Instrument in Predetermined Positions with Respect to the Writing Surface", US Patent 6,181,329, January 30, 2001
  • [StoutenburgE02a] Stoutenburg, Earney; Mollett, Cassandra J.; Price, James; Fillinger, Charles A.; Nelson, Eric M.; Seifert, Dean A.; and Singleton, Jeffrey "Systems and methods for performing transactions at a point-of-sale", US Patent Application 2002/0153414A1, October 24, 2002
  • [StrachanJP01a] Strachan, John Paul "Instrumentation and Algorithms for Electrostatic Inverse Problems", Masters Thesis, EECS, MIT, September 2001
  • [StrickonJA03a] Strickon, Joshua Andrew "Smoke and Mirrors to Modern Computers: Rethinking the Design and Implementation of Interactive, Location-Based Entertainment Experiences", PhD Thesis, Program of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT, February 2003
  • [SuGM03a] Su, Guan-Ming; Wu, Min; Liu, K. J. Ray "TabletPC Programming: ENEE408G Multimedia Signal Processing, Pen Computing and Tablet PC Programming Manual, Using Microsoft Visual Studio.NET C# and Tablet PC Platform SDK", Course Notes October 7, 2003, Dept. Elec. and Comp. Eng., U. of Maryland at College Park
  • [SuhB02a] Suh, Bongwon and Bederson, Benjamin B. "OZONE: A Zoomable Interface for Navigating Ontology Information", Proc. AVI 2002, Trento, Itally, pp. 139-143
  • [SurloffS02a] Surloff, Samuel; McRae, Steven; Alagem, Beny; and Traves, Ira Thomas "Method and apparatus for providing simplified access to the internet", US Patent Application 2002/0196227 A1, Decmeber 25, 2002
  • [SynapseAdaptive01a] Synapse Adaptive / Alva Technology "Active Areas in outSPOKEN 3.0 / Outspoken Solo 3.0 Screen Reader Software for Windows 95 / Windows NT", www.synapseadaptive.com, fetched 2014
  • [SynapseAdaptive01b] Synapse Adaptive / Alva Technology "Feature highlights of outSPOKEN Ensemble 3.0 / outSPOKEN software for Windows 3.0", www.synapseadaptive.com, fetched 2014
  • [Synaptics01a] Synaptics Incorporated "New Touch Screens Improve Handheld Human Interface", Synaptics White Paper WP-12, P/N 507-000003, Rev A. Synaptics Inc., San Jose California, 2001
  • [Synaptics01b] Synaptics Incorporated "Synaptics TouchPad Interfacing Guide, Second Edition", Synaptics Inc., Document 510-00080-A, January 22, 2001
  • [Synaptics01c] Synaptics Incorporated "Synaptics TouchPad / ScrollStrip / TouchStyk / Spiral / ClearPad product information", http://synaptics.com, archived 2001
  • [Synaptics01d] Synaptics Incorporated "Capacitive Position Sensing Technology", Synaptics Inc., San Jose California, 2001
  • [Synaptics03a] Synaptics Incorporated "Transparent Capacitive Position Sensing / Transparent Capacitive Force Sensing / Inductive Position Sensing", Synaptics Inc., San Jose California, 2003
  • [Synaptics03b] Synaptics Incorporated "Comparison of Resistive and Capacitive Technologies (for touchscreens)", Synaptics Inc., San Jose California, 2003
  • [TabletPC01a] Microsoft "Bill Gates announcement of Tablet PC as keynote speech at Comdex 2001", Microsoft Press Reports, 2001
  • [TabletPC01b] Microsoft "Windows XP Tablet PC Edition FAQ: Tablet PC Frequently Asked Questions: What is a Tablet PC exactly?", www.microsoft.com, November 9, 2001
  • [TabletPC02a] Microsoft "Pressemitteilungen: Microsoft TabletPC beim CeBIT, WINHEC, usw. / Press clipping file", c't magazine, 2002, others
  • [TacTex01a] TacTex Inc. "Express multi-touch pressure-sensitive touchpad", www.tactex.com, 2001
  • [TaggJP03a] Tagg, James Peter and Campbell, Alistair James "Capacitive Touch Detectors", US Patent Application 2003/0067451, April 10, 2003
  • [TakeuchiK02a] Takeuchi, Kazuhiro and Kuroda, Mitsuru "Grip and Cap for Writing Tool, and Writing Tool", US Patent 6,439,791, August 27, 2002
  • [TandlerP01a] Tandler, Peter and Prante, Thorsten "Using Incremental Gesture Recognition to Provide Immediate Feedback while Drawing Pen Gestures", Proc. UIST 2001
  • [TappertCC01] Tappert, Charles C. and Mosley, Pauline H. "Recent Advances in Pen Computing", Tech. Rpt. Number 166, August 2001, School of Computer Science and Information Systems, Pace Univ., While Plains, New York
  • [Targus01a] Palm Info Center "Targus HandCam: Combo Springboard Camera and Webcam Coming", Palm Info Center, November 13, 2001
  • [TayYH01a] Tay, Yong Haur; Khalid, Marzuki; Lallican, Pierre Michel; Knerr, Stefan; Viard-Gaudin, Christian "An Analytical Handwritten Word Recognition System with Word-level Discriminant Training", Proc. ICDAR 2001, pp 726-730
  • [Tealpoint01] Tealpoint Inc. "TealScript User's Manual Version 2.30", www.tealpoint.com, 2001
  • [TedescoDE02a] Tedesco, Daniel E.; Walker, Jay S.; and Kessman, Marc D. "Method and Apparatus for Performing Supplemental Searches over a Network", US Patent 6,349,295, February 19, 2002
  • [Telepen03a] Telepen Barcode Systems "Telepen Barcode Systems: Barcode Reader - Scanners", www.telepen.demon.co.uk, fetched 2003
  • [TenGO03a] The Edge, Singapore "Doing the TenGO", The Edge, Singapore, May 19, 2003, Page E
  • [TenGO03b] Xrgomics "TenGO User Manual Version 1.0 (Palm Version)", Xrgomics, Inc. September 26, 2003
  • [Tenon03a] Tenon Intersystems "Xtools X Windows Server User's Guide", Tenon Intersystems, 2003
  • [TerryM02a] Terry, Michael and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. "Side Views: Persistent On-Demand Previews for Open-Ended Tasks", Proc. UIST 02, October 27..30, 2002, Paris, France, pp. 71..80
  • [TexasInstruments03a] Texas Instruments Inc. "Texas Instruments TSC2301 4-Wire Touch Screen Controller, St. CODEC with HP Amplifier (Keypad Int. + 6 GPIOs)", Texas Instruments, 2003
  • [ThomasBH01a] Thomas, Bruce H. and Calder, Paul "Applying Cartoon Animation Techniques to Graphical User Interfaces", ACM Trans. on Computer-Human-Interaction, vol 8 no 3, September 2001, pp. 198..222
  • [ThomasDE02a] Thomas, Donald E. and Moorby, Philip R. "The Verilog Hardware Description Language, 5th edition", Kluwer Academic Publichers, 2002
  • [ThomasEA03a] Thomas, Eric Anthony "Methods apparatus and computer program products for providing user input to an application using a contact-sensitive surface", US Patent 6,624,832, September 23, 2003
  • [ThornerC02a] Thorner, Craig and Heilman, Paul M. III "Universal tactile feedback system for computer video games and simulations", US Patent 6,422,941, July 23, 2002
  • [TillyC01a] Tilly, Chris "The History of Windows CE", HPC: Factor, February 18, 2001. Fetched 2014, 2003
  • [TobaM01a] Toba, Masato "Fildable portable communication machine", Japanese Patent Application JP2001298514A, October 26, 2001
  • [ToddSJP03a] Todd, Stephen James Paul "Automatic Target Enlargement for Simplified Selection", US Patent 6,567,109, May 20, 2003
  • [TokiokaM01a] Tokioka, Masaki; Tanaka, Atsuhi; Yoshimura, Yuichiro; Yanagisawa, Ryozo; Kobayashi, Katsuyuki; and Sato, Hajime "Coordinate Detecting Device for Outputting Coordinate Data when Two Points are Simultaneously Depressed", US Patent 6,255,604, July 3, 2001
  • [TomasiC03a] Tomasi, Carlo; Rafii, Abbas; and Torunoglu, Ilhami "Full-Size Projected Keyboard for Handheld Devices", CACM, July 23, vol 46 no 7, pp. 71..75
  • [Tomitsch03] Tomitsch, Martin "Trends and Evolution of Window Interfaces: Discussion on Interfaces and Interaction Techniques for Window Management", Master's Thesis, Univ. Technology, Vienna, December 2003
  • [TomohideK03a] Tomihide, Kiyohisa "Foldable Personal Digital Assistant", Japanese Patent Application JP2003333139A, November 21, 2003
  • [TomsHardware03] TomsHardware.com "The Digital Writing Pad: Tablet PCs", www.tomshardware.com, 2003
  • [TorunogluI03a] torunoglu, Ilhami; Desai, Apurva; Sze, Cheng-Feng; Prakash, Gagan; and Rafii, Abbas "Mulple Input Modes in Overlapping Physical Space", US Patent Application 2003/0174125A1, September 18, 2003
  • [Toshiba02a] Toshiba Singapore Pte Ltd "Touch Technology for Today and Tomorrow", Tech Brief/Emerging Technologies: Toshiba Singapore, 16 September 2002
  • [Toshiba02b] Gateway Computers "Microsoft Windows/XP Tablet PC Edition convertible laptop circa 2002", Toshiba, 2002 (physical device)
  • [Toshiba03a] Toshiba America Electronic Components "Toshiba America Electronic Components demonstrates first system on glass (SOG) input display with built-in image capture", Toshiba America, May 12, 2003
  • [TsangM02a] Tsang, Michael; Fitzmaurice, George W.; Kurtenbach, Gordon; Khan, Azam; and Buxton, Bill "Boom Chameleon: Simultaneous capture of 3D viewpoint, voice and gesture annotations on a spatially-aware display", Proc. UIST '02, October 27..03, 2002, Paris, pp. 111..120
  • [TsukadaK01a] Tsukada, Koji and Yasumura, Michiaki "Ubi-Finger: Gesture Input Device for Mobile Use", Proc. UbiComp 2001, pp. 388..400
  • [TsukadaY02a] Tsukada, Yujin and Hoshino, Takeshi "Layered Touch Panel: the Input Device with Two Touch Panel Layers", Proc. CHI 2002, April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, pp. 584-585
  • [TsukamotoM01a] Tsukamoto, Masahide "Pattern Formation Method for Multi-layered Electronic Components", US Patent 6,171,946, January 9, 2001
  • [TsunodaY02a] Tsunoda, Yuji "Foldable mobile telephone set", Japanese Patent Application JP2002374338A, December 12, 2002
  • [TuovinenAP02a] Tuovinen, Antti-Pekka "Object-Oriented Engineering of Visual Languages", PhD Thesis, Series of Publications A, Report A-2002-1, U. Helsinki, Finland, February 2002
  • [UDelaware02] University of Delaware "UD researchers develop revolutionary computer interface technology", University of Delaware Press Release, September 27, 2002
  • [USB01a] usb.org USB Implementers' Forum "Universal Serial Bus (USB) Device Class Definition for Human Interface Devices (HID), Firmware Specification-6/27/01, Version 1.11", usb.org USB Implementers' Forum, 2001
  • [UedaT03a] Ueda, Tsutomu and Ooue, Toshikazu "Pressure-sensitive conductive ink composition", US Patent 6,555,024, April 29, 2003
  • [UllmerB01] Ullmer, Brygg and Ishii, Hiroshi "Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfaces", "Human-computer Interaction in the New Millenium", Addison-Wesley, August 2001, pp. 579-601
  • [UlrichRR01a] Uncapher, Kieth W. "Pattern and Color Abstraction in a Graphical User Interface", US Patent 6,239,795, May 29, 2001
  • [Uncapher02] Uncapher, Kieth W. "Biographical information for Kieth W. Uncapher, Senior Vice President, CNRI", www.cnri.reston.va.us/bios/Uncapher.html: CNRI, 1895 Preston White Drive, Suite 100, Reston, Virginia 20191-5434
  • [Unipen03a] Unipen Wanda Project "Wanda XML Version 1.0: A data standard for the annotation and storage of handwriting samples in the context of (computer-based) forensic handwriting analysis and writer identification", http://unipen.nici.kun.nl/wandaML/WANDA/xmlspec.pdf, May 2003
  • [UrashimaN02a] Urashima, Nobuaki and Ikeda, Hayato "Inorganic dispersion stabilizer and process for producing resinous particles using the same", US Patent 6,451,941, September 17, 2002
  • [VaeaenaenenJ02a] Vaeaenaenen, J. "Method and device for browsing information on a display", US Patent Application 2002/0175896, November 28, 2002
  • [ValdesR01] Valdes, Ray "DDJ Handprinting Recognition Context Wrap-up", Dr. Dobb's Journal, July 22, 2001. Available at www.ddj.com
  • [VanBrocklinAL03a] Van Brocklin, Andrew L.; Oross, Glen A.; Bausch, James F.; and May, Gregory J. "Optical Pointing Devices", US Patent 6,552,713, April 22, 2003
  • [VanDerVlistE02a] van der Vlist, Eric "XML Schema, First Edition", O'Reilly ISBN 0-596-0252-1, 2002 (hardcopy book)
  • [VanValkenburgME02a] Van West, Jeff "Reference Data for Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications, 9th edition", Newnes / Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002
  • [VanWestJ02a] Van West, Jeff "Tablet PC Quick Reference", Microsoft Publishing, November 6 2002
  • [VanceSL01a] Vance, Scott LaDell "Pressure Sensitive Direction Switches", US Patent 6,313,731, November 6, 2001
  • [VanderheidenGC02a] Vanderheiden, Gregg C. "Touch Screen for the Vision-Impaired", US Patent 6,384,743, May 7, 2002
  • [VanderheidenGC03a] Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Law, Christopher M.; and Kelso, David P. "Interface for electronic devices providing improved access for people with disabilities", US Patent 6,624,803, September 23, 2003
  • [VanttilaJ01a] Vantitila, Jaakko "Mobile Terminal having Improved User Interface", US Patent 6,173,194, January 9, 2001
  • [VernierF02a] Vernier, Frederic; Lesh, Neal; and Shen, Chia "Visualization Techniques for Circular Tabletop Interfaces", Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories Tech. Rpt. TR2002-01, March 2002. www.merl.com: to appear in Advanced Visual Interface Conf., May 200, Trento Italy
  • [VietsRR02a] Viets, Richard R.; Motes, David G.; Greve, Paula Budig; and Herberg, Wayne W. "System and method for controlling access to documents stored on an internal network", US Patent 6,357,010, March 12, 2002
  • [ViewSonic03a] ViewSonic Corporation "ViewSonic Pocket PC v37 User Guide", ViewSonic Corporation, 2003
  • [VijayaKittuM03] Vijaya Kittu, M. "Keep a Tab on the Tablet PC / What makes the Tablet PC Tick / The Tablet PC Arrives", Information Technology, January 2003 pp 45..50, 59..61, December 2002 pp 14..16
  • [Vitis02] Vitis, Pavel "Gestures: mouse stroke controlling system", http://lsg.euweb.cz/show.php3?f=gestures/README, fetched 2002
  • [VonHardenbergC01a] von Hardenberg, Christian and Berard, Francois "Bare-Hand Human-Computer Interaction", Proc. ACM PUI 2001, Orlando Florida, pp. 1-ff.
  • [VongW02a] Vong, William and Schwitters, Chad "Handheld computing device with external notification system", US Patent 6,374,276, April 16, 2002
  • [VuoriV02a] Vuori, Vuokko "Adaptive methods for on-line recognition of isolated hand-written characters", Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Mathematics and Computing Seris No. 119, December 14, 2002
  • [VuurpijlL01a] Vurrpijl, Louis and Schomaker, Lambert "dScript: an agent-based handwriting recognition demo", http://hrw.nici.kun.nk/recog/dscript, 2001
  • [W3C03a] W3C www.w3.org "Requirements for the Ink Markup Language", W3C Note 22 January 2003, version www.w3.org/TR/2003/NOTE-inkreqs-20030122/, www.w3.org/TR/inkreqs
  • [Wacom02a] Wacom Components "Pen Input is back!", Wacom Components: press release, June 10, 2002
  • [WagnerCR02a] Wager, Christopher R.; Lederman, S.J.; and Howe, Robert D. "A Tactile Shape Display Using RC Servomotors", Tenth Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, March 24-25, 2002, Orlando
  • [WagnerCR02b] Wager, Christopher R.; Lederman, S.J.; and Howe, Robert D. "Design and Performance of a Tactile Shape Display Using RC Servomotors", Haptics-e, the Electronic Journal of Haptics Research, vol 3 no 4, August 6, 2004
  • [WakeamJ03a] Wakeam, Jamie "Ink Analysis with the Tablet PC SDK", Microsoft MSDN, May 2003
  • [WalkerG01] Walker, Geoff "A detailed look at Microsoft's Proposed Tablet PC project", Pen Computing Magazine, July 2001
  • [WalkerG01b] Walker, Geoff "Microsoft Tablet PC History: A detailed look at Microsoft's proposed Tablet PC (2001)", http://RuggedPCReview.com, 2001
  • [WalkerG02a] Walker, Geoff "Tablet PC Update", Pen Computing Magazine, Spring 2002
  • [WalkerG02b] Walker, Geoff "Tablet Taxonomy: Special Report: WebPads", Pen Computing Magazine, January 2002, available at www.pencomputing.com
  • [WalkerG03a] Walker, Geoff, editied by Purdy, J. Gerry "Tablet PC Report", MobileTrax Enterprise IT Service, Cupertino, CA, August 2003
  • [WallaceH03a] Wallace, Hugh and Gordon, Gary B. "Optical screen pointing device with inertial properties", US Patent 6,621,483, September 16, 2003
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    Later in life,                                        
        he was much more successful than his former rivals
            with regard to romantic relationships,        
        because he had never been particularly handsome,  
            and thus had learned to be charming instead.  
    Verantwortung umfasst mehr als die Schuld:       
    Wer sich zur Verantwortung verpflichtet hat      
    muss für gutes sorgen, nicht nur böses vermeiden.
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