History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)
Copyright © 20180623 22:31:11 EDT

This posting of an annotated bibliography on gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen and touch computing), both hardware and software, has been a continuing work-in-progress since the 1980s. It includes information on related application topics, such as digital rights management (DRM), portable computing, cryptographic communications, and biometric authentication. I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field. It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any of the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, touch/gesture user interfaces, multi-touch computing, passive and active tactile feedback, touch and proximity sensors, augmented reality, haptics, context-dependent intrepretation of user input, and applications including the same. It covers the time period from approximately 1891 (first electronic tablet) through 1914 (first gesture/handwriting-recognition input system) to the present day.

Jean Renard Ward For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services,
including my CV for consulting or as an expert witness:
URL:   http://www.ruetersward.com.)
e-mail: jrward@alum.mit.edu
Google Voice: 617-600-4095

References from the approximate years 1970 to 1975.

biblio70 (Prev page)   (Prev page) Main Page Main Page Main Page (Next page)   (Next page) biblio80
biblio70 (Prev page)  (Prev page) Main Page Main Page Main Page (Next page)  (Next page) biblio80
Mirrors of this page can be found at:


I try to speak truth to power,
but I do get nervous when it speaks back.
"Wir sind schlechte Lehrer, also müssen wir lügen."
                Friedrich Nietsche,                
                "Also sprach Zarathustra"          
                (über die Weisheit der Dichter)    

Valid HTML 4.01